Celestial Pig Pens and new tricks for old scopes

It takes a lot of detective work to figure out the nature of a type Ia supernova. Celestial Pig Pens and new tricks from old telescopes are contributing to the effort. That’s what we learned at the most recent meeting of Astronomy on Tap Seattle.

Messy Siblings: Supernovae in Binary Systems

Dr. Melissa Graham is a project science analyst for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, working out of the Astronomy Department at the University of Washington. Her main research focus is supernovae. In particular, she’s doing a lot of work on type Ia supernovae, which occur in binary star systems. One of the stars involved will be a carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

“It’s a star that wasn’t massive enough to fuse anything else inside the carbon layers,” Graham explained. Outer layers of hydrogen and helium are thrown off in a planetary nebula phase, so the carbon and oxygen are what’s left.

Melissa Graham
Melissa Graham. UW photo.

“Carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars are very compact, very dense, about the size of the Earth but they can be up to about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun,” Graham said. These stars are pretty stable as stars go, so they don’t blow up under normal circumstances.

“When we do see these kind of supernovae that are clearly the explosion of carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars we have to wonder why,” she said. It turns out there are two possible scenarios. The binary can be a pair of carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that spiral in on each other, merge, and then explode. Or the binary can include one white dwarf and a more typical hydrogen-rich companion star.

“In this case the companion star can feed material onto this carbon-oxygen white dwarf star, might make it go over 1.4 solar masses, become unstable, and then explode,” Graham said.

Which is which?

The key to figuring out which of these scenarios actually occurred is to take a look at the area around the supernova. If the companion is a more hydrogen-rich companion star, the neighborhood can get a little messy.

“It’s sort of like a celestial Pig Pen star that leaves a lot of material lying around,” Graham said. A blast from a supernova can interact with this material and cause it to brighten. The trouble is that astronomers typically only observe type Ia supernovae for a couple of months; they fade quickly. So if this extra material is far away from the event, they might not see the interaction. The answer is patience, to look at the supernova sites for up to 2-3 years after.

Graham did exactly that, using the Hubble Space Telescope to keep an eye on the locations of 65 type Ia supernovae.

“Out of these 65, I very luckily found one” in which there was brightening much later. They checked the spectrum of the light and found hydrogen, a sure sign that the companion in this particular type Ia supernova was a Pig Pen. Graham suspects that up to five percent of such explosions involve messy sibling stars.

Graham looks forward to having the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) come on line. She expects it will find some 10 million supernovae in a decade.

“This marks a massive increase in our ability to both find and characterize supernovae,” she said.

Old scope, new tricks

While we wait for LSST an old workhorse telescope is doing interesting work in a similar vein. Professor Eric Bellm of the UW works with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), which uses the 48-inch telescope at Palomar observatory in California. The scope is a Schmidt, completed in 1948, and for years it was the largest Schmidt telescope in the world. It’s main function at first was to use its wide-field view of the sky to create maps that helped astronomers point Palomar Mountain’s 200-inch Hale Telescope.

Eric Bellm
Eric Bellm. UW photo.

The 48-inch was used to do numerous sky surveys over the years. It discovered many asteroids, and Mike Brown used it to find the dwarf planets he used to kill Pluto. The old photographic plates gave way to modern CCDs, and Bellm became the project scientist for the Zwicky Transient Facility—named for astronomer Fritz Zwicky, a prolific discoverer of supernovae—in 2011.

They outfitted the scope with a new camera with 16 CCDs that are four inches per side. They got some big filters for it and put in a robotic arm that could change the filters without getting in the way of the camera. They started surveying in March of last year and can photograph much of the sky on any given night.

“That’s letting us look for things that are rare, things that are changing quickly, things that are unusual,” Bellm said.

Examples of what the ZTF has found include a pair of white dwarfs that are spinning rapidly around each other, with a period of just seven minutes. They can see the orbits decay because of gravitational wave radiation. It has discovered more than 100 young type 1a supernovae. And it found an asteroid with the shortest “year” of any yet discovered; its orbit is entirely within that of Venus.

It’s doing the same sort of work that the LSST will do when it comes online.

“It’s super cool that we’ve got this more than 70 year old telescope that we’re doing cutting-edge science with thanks to the advances of technology,” Bellm said.

Astronomy on Tap Seattle is organized by graduate students in astronomy at the University of Washington, and typically meets on the fourth Wednesday of each month at Peddler Brewing Company in Ballard. The next event is set for September 25.

Astro-events and stargazing sites

We’ve been beefing up our astronomy resources of late, adding quite a few events to our calendar and stargazing sites to our maps.

Craters of the Moon
Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho is one of the IDA’s International Dark-sky Parks. Photo: US National Park Service

We were inspired to add some stargazing sites by a recent article on the Travel Awaits website. “The 7 Most Incredible Stargazing Sites In The U.S.” by Juanita Pike did not include any Northwest locations, but we went through the International Dark-Sky Association‘s list of dark sky places and added those in our region to our stargazing site maps. We did hop out of the Northwest, barely, for one of them. The frighteningly named Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area is a certified IDA International Dark Sky Sanctuary just south of the Oregon border in northwestern Nevada.

The maps have grown to have quite a few sites on them. The northwest map is up to about 70, and the Seattle-area map has a stargazer’s dozen.

Astronomy events

Our events calendar is a pretty robust listing of astronomy events in the region. It’s helpful that we can pull events directly from the calendars of several different organizations, including the Seattle, Tacoma, Palouse, and Island County astronomical societies. Some others take a little more legwork. For example, we recently discovered a listing of events about exoplanets that will be running at the Jefferson County Library through early October, and the Southern Oregon Skywatchers shared a list of pending events in their neck of the woods.

Destination: Moon

Apollo 11 Command Module Columbia
The Apollo 11 command module “Columbia” will be at the Museum of Flight through Sept. 2. Photo: Greg Scheiderer.

One of the coolest events of the year is about the come to an end. The Destination: Moon exhibit about the Apollo 11 mission has been at the Museum of Flight since April and will be closing next week, September 2. The Apollo 11 command module “Columbia” is the centerpiece of the exhibit, but there are a great many other interesting items on display as well. (Check out our article about the exhibit when it was in St. Louis last year, and our preview of the MOF version.)

For the final days of Destination: Moon the museum will offer extended hours and discount pricing. Normal hours for the museum are 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. daily. From August 28 through September 2 they’ll stay open from 5-9 p.m. and admission will be discounted during those late hours: $15 for adults and seniors and $10 for youth. Destination: Moon is a separate, $10 ticket; you have to arrive at or after 5 p.m. to qualify for the discount.

We always say that we comb the Internet for astronomy events so that you don’t have to! Please feel free to share any events by your club or organization.

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Astro Biz: Orion Commercial Partners

Many businesses, products, and places have names rooted in space and astronomy. We’re featuring one periodically on Seattle Astronomy.

Today’s Astro Biz is Orion Commercial Partners. ORION is a Seattle-based real estate services and investment firm. We spotted their sign outside the West Seattle Corporate Center (they lease space there) as we were on our way to the West Seattle Health Club.

We like that their logo is a riff on Orion’s belt.

More info:

A surprise discovery from Apollo 11 lunar samples

As we look back at the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing, Toby Smith notes that the most interesting science that came out of the mission was a bit of a surprise. Smith, a senior lecturer in astronomy at the University of Washington, gave a talk at the most recent meeting of Astronomy on Tap Seattle.

“There’s only one reason Apollo existed—to beat the Soviet Union to the surface of the Moon,” Smith noted. Few considered the mission to be scientific. “It wasn’t fully embraced by the scientific community even in its day, even among planetary scientists.”

But they figured as long as they were there, they should do some sort of science.

“This little bit of science they did fundamentally changed how we view not only the Moon, but the Earth-Moon system and our solar system,” Smith said.

The Apollo 11 landing site, the Sea of Tranquility on the Moon, is essentially an ancient lava flow, a featureless plain of cooled volcanic rock, Smith said. Think of it like Big Island of Hawaii, except you don’t really see the solidified lava on the Moon. The surface is soft, ground down and rounded off into a soft powder by billions of years of impacts. As Neil Armstrong observed just after his first step, it has the consistency of flour. That consistency almost accidentally led to the mission’s best science.

Moon rock box
An Apollo Lunar Sample Return container on display at the Destination: Moon exhibit at the St. Louis Science Center in 2018. (Photo: Greg Scheiderer)

Armstrong spent about 15 minutes of the two-and-a-half hour Moon walk picking up rocks and putting them into a box. At the end he collected nine scoops of lunar regolith and dumped it into the Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container (a fancy NASA term for the case for rocks) as sort of a packing material so the larger rocks wouldn’t clatter around. If they’d taken any styrofoam peanuts he might have used those instead.

Naturally, when this material was brought back to Earth, the scientists looked at it, and Smith said it just might be the most studied geological sample ever.

Smith noted that the regolith is highly angular; lunar dust is sharp.

“This is not material that was broken up by being tumbled,” he said. “This is material that was broken up by being fractured by impacts.”

It’s a diverse sample. It contains basalt, breccia (material created by impacts that shatters and sometimes melts back together), and impact spheres. There was also one unusual, bright white material in the collection. It turned out to be anorthosite, which makes up about four percent of the sample.

“It represents a piece of the original crust of the Moon long since destroyed by four and a half billion years of impacts,” Smith explained. Anorthosite is an igneous rock, like basalt, that comes from the cooling of melted rock. Basalt is created when lava moves across the ground, but Smith noted that anorthosite doesn’t work that way.

“Anorthosite forms in big pools of lava, huge pools of lava, huge chambers of lava,” he said. “As these chambers of lava slowly cool over time, the anorthosite floats to the top.”

“If this was found on the Moon it must mean that at some point early in the Moon’s history it must have been almost completely molten,” Smith added. This information made scientists re-think their notions about the origins of the Moon.

“Before Apollo there was no indication that the whole, entire Moon was almost completely melted,” he said.

The leading theory about the formation of the Moon these days is that something pretty big, about the size of Mars, smacked into the early Earth, and that material flung into space by the impact eventually coalesced into the Moon. The catch is that computer simulations of this event don’t often result in a completely molten Moon. So more study is needed. The lunar samples have been under constant scrutiny for the last 50 years, and Smith says he’s interested to see what new information can be gleaned from those samples as new analytical technology is developed.

Astronomy on Tap Seattle is organized by graduate students in astronomy at the University of Washington. The next gathering is set for Wednesday, August 28, 2019 at Peddler Brewing Company in Ballard.

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Astro Biz: Moon Rocks chocolate bar

Moon Rocks chocolateMany businesses, products, and places have names rooted in space and astronomy. We’re featuring one periodically on Seattle Astronomy.

Today’s Astro Biz is the Moon Rocks chocolate bar from Seattle Chocolate. There are plenty of products out this summer to commemorate and cash in on the 50th anniversary of the first Moon landing, and this is a fun one. It’s a milk chocolate truffle bar with “bits of popping candy.” I was thinking pop rocks, but the pop comes from a bit of CO2 mixed in with the sugary bits.

This special-issue bar was created in conjunction with the Museum of Flight, which has helped spearhead a lot of Apollo commemoratives in connection with its Destination: Moon exhibit that includes the Apollo 11 command module Columbia. It (the bar, not Columbia) is available in many grocery stores as well.

More info:

Seattle Astronomy talks Apollo anniversary at Tacoma libraries

Moonwalk talks

Greg gave the first of his series of talks about Apollo 11 June 29 at the Kobetich Branch of Tacoma Public Library.

Seattle Astronomy is doing our small part in celebrating  the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 and the first human landing on the Moon. Greg Scheiderer will give six talks as part of the Tacoma Public Library system’s summer reading program.

The talks, titled “Moon Walk: Apollo 11 and a Man on the Moon,” will explore the extraordinary shared experiences of the Apollo missions, look at the history that got us step-by-step up to the giant leap, share some of the iconic photography of Apollo, and, since it’s the summer reading program, offer a list of Apollo readings for adults and kids alike.

The first talk was given on Saturday, June 29, 2019 at the library’s Kobetich Branch. The rest of the schedule is as follows:

You can also find schedule information on our calendar, in our Facebook events section, and on the library’s summer reading club events calendar. Come out and join us for a fun look back at Apollo 11!

Here’s our Apollo reading list!

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Apollo 11 50th anniversary reading list

I’m giving a series of six talks this summer at various branches of Tacoma Public Library about the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission and the first humans to walk on the Moon. It’s part of the library’s summer reading club. My talk includes some suggested reading about Apollo. Here’s what I recommend:

A lot of the material for my talk came from James Donovan‘s excellent book Shoot for the Moon: The Space Race and the extraordinary Voyage of Apollo 11 (Little, Brown and Company, 2019). Apollo 11 command module pilot Michael Collins calls the book “The best book on Apollo that I have read.”

Shoot for the Moon takes us on a tour of the space race from Sputnik up through the Apollo missions. Marvelously detailed and highly accessible, I could hardly put it down. It’s a marvelous chronicle of this great adventure.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library

Seattle Public Library


Rod Pyle‘s First on the Moon: The Apollo 11 50th Anniversary Experience (Sterling, 2019) includes a forward by the mission’s Buzz Aldrin, second man to walk on the Moon. It’s a beautifully illustrated volume that is a fitting commemoration of Apollo 11.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library (N/A)

Seattle Public Library


Charles Fishman‘s One Giant Leap: The Impossible Mission That Flew Us to the Moon (somebody, 2019) focuses on many of the people behind the scenes—technicians, engineers, scientists—who made the Moon landing possible. About 400,000 people in all worked on some aspect of the Apollo missions.

Fishman gave a talk about the book June 28 at Town Hall Seattle but unfortunately I wasn’t able to attend. The book is next on my nightstand, though.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library

Seattle Public Library


David Whitehouse‘s Apollo 11: The Inside Story (Icon Books, 2019) is based on the author’s interviews with a host of astronauts, NASA personnel, politicians, and other insiders to tell the tale about how Apollo came about.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library (N/A)

Seattle Public Library (N/A)

 


Richard Maurer‘s Destination Moon: The Remarkable and Improbable Voyage of Apollo 11 (Roaring Book Press, 2019) goes back in time. While most tales about the space race start with Sputnik, Maurer begins with fighter pilots in World War II. He traces the origins of the Apollo program to a few exceptional soldiers, a Nazi engineer, and a young eager man who would become president.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library

Seattle Public Library


The Space Race: The Journey to the Moon and Beyond (DK Children, 2019) by Sarah Cruddas is targeted for kids from ages 6–9 and takes them from the race to the Moon to the future and the possibility of perhaps one day living on Mars.

The Space Race includes a forward by Eileen Collins, the first women to be commander of a space shuttle mission.

Amazon

Tacoma Public Library

Seattle Public Library


Two books by John M. Logsdon, founder and long-time director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University, wrap up our list. They’re not new, but both offer interesting discussions of the public policy debates behind the Space Race and how the decisions changed the future of U.S. space exploration.

John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon (Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology, 2010) and After Apollo?: Richard Nixon and the American Space Program (Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology, 2015) are great reads for those interested in public policy and how challenging decisions are made. The books are relevant now as we observe the anniversary of Apollo, and as we consider the pros and cons of a return to the Moon and possible future missions to Mars.

Check out our 2015 article about Logsdon’s discussion of the future of space exploration given at that winter’s meeting of the American Astronomical Society.


Books marked at N/A at the library branches were not listed in their catalogs as of June 30, 2019. They may be on the way, as most of the titles are fresh off the presses. If you purchase from Amazon through the links above, a small percentage of the sale comes to Seattle Astronomy at no cost to you. This helps support our work on astronomy journalism.

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